Praktikum I Laporan Tetap Praktikum Kesuburan Tanah Jurusan Tanah. Nama : Tanggal : Nim : Asisten : Jurusan : 1. Kelompok :


1 Praktikum I Laporan Tetap Praktikum Kesuburan Tanah Jurusan Tanah Nama : Tanggal : Nim : Asisten : Jurusan : 1. Kelompok : A. Judul : Perhitungan Be...
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Praktikum I Laporan Tetap Praktikum Kesuburan Tanah Jurusan Tanah Nama

:

Tanggal

:

Nim

:

Asisten

:

Jurusan

:

1.

Kelompok

:

2. 3. 4. 5.

A. Judul

: Perhitungan Berat Tanah per Hektar

B. Tujuan

: Untuk

mengetahui cara menghitung berat tanah per hektar

sehingga dapat menentukan kebutuhan kapur dan pupuk yang akan digunakan. C. Perhitungan .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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D. Latihan Soal .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 2

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E. Ringkasan .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 4

Praktikum II Laporan Tetap Praktikum Kesuburan Tanah Jurusan Tanah Nama

:

Tanggal

:

Nim

:

Asisten

:

Jurusan

:

1.

Kelompok

:

2. 3. 4. 5.

A. Judul

: Perhitungan Kebutuhan Kapur dan Cara Pemberian Kapur

B. Tujuan

: Untuk mengetahui cara menghitung kebutuhan kapur yang akan digunakan dan mengetahui bagaimana cara pemberian kapur yang baik ke tanah.

C. Literatur Kemasaman tanah merupakan suatu masalah utama yang sering ditemui pada tanah-tanah di wilayah beriklim tropika basah. Sebagian besar dari tanah yang menempati wilayah tropika basah bereaksi masam. Berkenaan dengan luasnya tanah yang demikian maka sebetulnya tanah tersebut mempunyai potensi untuk pengembangan usaha pertanian. Akan tetapi sebelum digunakan untuk tujuan tersebut, masalah kemasamannya harus dikendalikan lebih dahulu. Pengapuran merupakan suatu cara pengendalian kemasaman tanah yang telah diyakini.

D. Beberapa Jenis Kapur Pertanian yang Sering digunakan : 1. Kalsit (CaCO3) Kapur pertanian adalah kapur yang berasal dari batuan kapur yang banyak dijumpai di Indonesia. Batuan kapur ini banyak mengandung kalsium dan magnesium yang sifatnya mampu menetralkan aluminium. Kapur karbonat,

5

merupakan kapur yang bukan melalui proses pembakaran tetapi digiling langsung. Kapur karbonat ini memiliki dua macam yaitu kalsit dan dolomit. Untuk kapur kalsit mengandung kalsium oksida 47% dan kalsium karbonatnya 85%. Kalsit yang berkomposisi kimia CaCO3. Kalsit mempunyai bentuk prismatik, tabular, rhombohedral, massive, berbutir kasar sampai sangat halus. Kalsit murni tidak berwarna dan transparan, warna akan berubah sesuai dengan substitusi yang terjadi seperti kuning, pink, biru, lavender, kehijauan, abu-abu dan hitam. Kalsit dipergunakan untuk keperluan pertanian, industri kimia, industri makanan, industri metalurgi, industri konstruksi dan industri lainnya. Kalsit merupakan mineral utama pembentuk batu gamping dengan unsure kimia pembentuknya terdiri dari kalsium (Ca) dan karbonat (CaCO3), mempunyai system Kristal megsogonal dan belahan robohedral, tidak dapat tersubstitusi oleh logam sebagai pengotor yang dalam persentase berat tertentu membentuk mineral lain. Dengan adanya substitusi ini ada perubahan dalam penulisan rumus kimia yaitu café(CO3) substitusi Ca oleh Fe. Sifat fisik dari kalsit adalah bobot isi 2,71, kekerasan 3 (skala most), bentuk prismatic; tabulat, pejal berbutir halus sampai keras, dapat terbentuk sebagai stalaktit, modul tublerus, kararoidal, oolitik atau pisiliyik. Warna kalsit yang tidak murni adalah kuning kecoklatan.

Para Praktikan diminta untuk mencari Literatur mengenai Kapur Kalsit dan tuliskan di lembar kosong di bawah ini. .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ..............................................................................................................................

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2. Dolomit (CaMg(CO3)2) Dolomit adalah mineral yang berasal dari alam yang mengandung unsur hara magnesium dan kalsium berbentuk tepung dengan rumus kimia CaMg(CO3)2. Dolomit merupakan solusi utama bagi pertanian, perkebunan dan tambak yang banyak diusahakan di atas tanah yang bereaksi masam seperti tanah yang diluar pulau Jawa. Penyebab tanah yang mempunyai kemasaman tinggi antara lain karena curah hujan yang tinggi, faktor penggunaan pupuk nitrogen yang berlebihan, asal batuan induk yang memiliki reaksi masam. Untuk itu pengapuran dolomit sangat tepat untuk mengatasi masalah kemasaman dan miskin hara. Dolomit merupakan pupuk yang berasal dari endapan mineral sekunder yang banyak mengandung unsur Ca dan Mg dengan rumus kimia CaMg(CO3)2 yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan pengapuran tanah masam. Pupuk dolomit di samping menambah Ca dan Mg dalam tanah juga memperbaiki keasaman tanah serta meningkatkan ketersediaan unsur yang lain misalnya Mo dan P. Dolomit berwarna putih keabuabuan atau kebiru-biruan dengan kekerasan lebih lunak dari batugamping, yaitu berkisar antara 3,50 - 4,00, bersifat pejal, berat jenis antara 2,80 2,90, berbutir halus hingga kasar dan mempunyai sifat mudah menyerap air serta mudah dihancurkan. Klasifikasi dolomit dalam perdagangan mineral industri didasarkan atas kandungan unsur magnesium (Mg), kandungan mineral dolomit dan unsur kalsium (Ca). Kandungan unsur magnesium ini menentukan nama dolomit tersebut. Misalnya, batu gamping mengandung 10 % MgCO3 disebut batu gamping dolomitan, sedangkan bila mengandung 19 % MgCO3 disebut dolomit.

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Para Praktikan diminta untuk mencari Literatur mengenai Kapur Dolomit dan tuliskan di lembar kosong di bawah ini. .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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Beberapa Landasan atau Dasar Perhitungan Kebutuhan Kapur.

Kita mengerti dahulu secara singkat apa itu KTK ! KTK adalah Kemampuan tanah untuk menjerap dan mempertukarkan kation yang dinyatakan dalam me/ 100 gram.

Besaran KTK dinyatakan dalam me (miliekuivalen) / 100 g KTK 1 me/100 g = tanah tersebut dapat menjerap ion Hidrogen (H +) sebesar 1 mg/100 g

10 ppm

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KTK dipengaruhi oleh : 1.

Reaksi tanah atau pH

2.

Tekstur tanah atau jumlah liat

3.

Jenis mineral liat

4.

Bahan Organik

5.

Pengapuran dan Pemupukan

Ad 1. REAKSI ATAU pH

(1) pH 200 KOLOID ORGANIK 160 KTK (me / 100 g) 120 MONTMORILLONIT

80 MUATAN PERMANEN 40

4.0

5.0

6.0 7.0 pH Tanah

8.0

Gambar. Pengaruh pH terhadap KTK dari koloid organik dan liat montmorillonit (Coleman & Mechlich, 1957 GADIS-DDIT-KIMIA TANAH-DASARDASAR JERAPAN-2013

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Penjelasan Gambar di atas tentang pH.

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Ad 2. TEKSTUR TANAH ATAU JUMLAH LIAT  Makin halus tekstur, makin tinggi jumlah liat, KTK juga bertambah besar  Makin kasar tekstur/ makin banyak pasir atau debu, KTK lebih kecil

Ad 3. JENIS MINERAL LIAT Mineral Liat

KTK Permanen (me/100 gr)

Ilit (muscovit)

37

Hidrobiotit

80

Montmorillonit (Grumosol)

100

Kaolinit (Latosol)

5

Haloysit

5

Penjelasan Tabel di atas Jenis Mineral.

.............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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Ad 4. BAHAN ORGANIK

Makin tinggi kandungan bahan organik tanah, KTK semakin tinggi KTK humus dapat mencapai 200 me/100 gr.

Bahan organik berasal dari sisa-sisa makhluk hidup seperti tumbuhan san hewan (Oesman, 1996), Menurut Soegiman (1982), sumber asli bahan organik tanah adalah jaringan tumbuhan seperti akar pohon, semak-semak, rumput, dan tumbuhan tingkat rendah lainnya, sedangkan hewan sebagai sumber bahan organik kedua. Pengaruh bahan organik pada sifat kimia tanah adalah meningkatkan daya jerap dan Kapasitas Tukar Kation, menambah ketersediaan unsur hara dan meningkatkan kelarutan sejumlah unsur hara dari mineral oleh asam humus. Sedangkan pengaruh bahan organik terhadap biologi tanah dapat meningkatkan jumlah dan aktivitas metabolik organisme tanah dan meningkatkan kegiatan jasad mikro membantu dekomposisi bahan organik (Hakim et al., 1986). Jerami padi merupakan salah satu sumber bahan organik yang dapat mempengaruhi sifat fisik, kimia, dan biologi tanah, hal ini telah lama dilakukan oleh petani dalam memanfaatkanjerami padi sebagai penambah bahan organik bagi tanah. Jumlah unsur hara dalam jerami padi cukup besar. Menurut rahman (1979) dalam Sitorus (1991), menyatakan bahwa jerami padi dengan kadar air 10 % mengandung 36 % C; 0,57 % N; 0,17 % P2O5; 1,88 % K2O; 0,51 % CaO; dan 0,14 % MgO.

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Perhitungan dan Penjelasan : (dicatat oleh mahasiswa) : ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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D. Perhitungan Kebutuhan Kapur per Hektar dan per 10 kg Tanah 1. Kalsit .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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2. Dolomit .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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E. Perhitungan Kapur Berdasarkan Al-dd Berdasarkan hasil analisis di Laboratorium, nilai Al-dd = 1,26 .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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F. Cara Pemberian Kapur Setelah diketahui berapa banyaknya kapur yang harus diberikan, maka tiba saatnya untuk menyebarkan kapur di lapangan. Kapan dan bagaimana kapur itu diberikan pada tanah akan dikemukakan dalam tulisan di bawah ini.

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Saat Mengapur : Pada dasarnya kapur diberikan pada tanah bila diperkirakan hujan tidak akan turun pada saat kapur disebar. Bila dalam pola pergiliran tanaman terdapat jenis tanaman yang peka terhadap keracunan aluminium dan mangan sebaiknya kapur diberikan jauh sebelum tanam (2 sampai 4 minggu) sebslum tanaman itu ditanam.

Cara Mengapur : Kaidah dasar mengapur ialah sebar di atas permukaan serata-ratanya dan diaduk dengan tanah serata-ratanya juga dan sedalam-dalamnya. Menyebar dan mengaduk rata dapat dilakukan dengan mudah. Tetapi memasukkan sedalam-dalamnya tidak semudah yang diperkirakan. Mengingat keadaan pertanian kita maka pengapuran dapat dilakukan secara manual atau mekanikal, yang pertama ditujukan untuk petani dengan peralatan terbatas, sedangkan yang lainnya untuk usaha pengapuran yang dilakukan serentak secara serentak secara besar-besaran dengan bantuan peralatan besar. 1.

Cara Manual Dalam penjelasan cara pengapuran secara manual digunakan beberapa perumpamaan. Pertama, lahan yang dikapur seluas 1 hektar dan jumlah kapur diperlukan sebanyak 4 ton per hektar. Kapur dikemas dalam karung plastik, masing-masing kemasan seberat 50 kg, jadi ada 80 kg kemasan kapur. Lahan 1 hektar berbentuk bujur sangkar dan bebas dari tunggul-tunggul. Penghalang tidak ada. Ketiga, petani tidak mempunyai ternak sapi atau kerbau untuk menghela bajak, ia menggunakan pacul atau garpu untuk mengaduk dan memikul kapur ke lahan.

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Langkah kerja yang harus dilakukan dalam pemberian kapur adalah : 1.

Membagi lahan 1 hektar dalam 20 petak sama luas memanjang satu sisi (A). Tiap petak seluas 500 m2 mendapat jatah kapur sebanyak 200 kg.

2.

Petak seluas 500 m2 dibagi dalam 10 bagian sama luas. Sub petak ini berukuran 50 m2 (B).

3.

Karung kapur seberat 50 kg diangkut/dipikul/digotong dan diletakkan di sub petak tengah yang diapit dua sub petak (B).

4.

Kapur dari masing-masing karung diisikan ke dalam ember 10 liter hingaa tiga perempat penuh. Hal ini sama dengan 10 kg kapur.

5.

Dua ember berisi masing-masing 10 kg kapur disebar rata di atas permukaan tanah seluas 50 m2 (C).

6.

Tahapan nomor 5 diulang sampai semua sub bab petak dalam lahan seluas 1 hektar telah ditaburi kapur.

7.

Setelah penaburan kapur, tanah dicangkul sambil kapur diaduk dengan tanah, kedalaman pencangkulan tergantung kemampuan. Paling kurang disarankan kedalaman pencangkulan tidak kurang dari 10 cm. Bila biasa menggunakan garpu, alat ini juga bisa dipakai.

8.

Gambar dibawah ini melukiskan denah pembagian petak, sub petak dan penempatan kapur.

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Gambar 1. Denah Pembagian Petak (A, B), Penempatan Karung (B), dan Arah Pembagian Kapur (C). 100 m m 100

100 m

A

5m

5m

10 m 10 m

Arah Pembagian kapur

Karung Kapur

x Karung kapur

x

B

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G. Ringkasan (Cari alasan keuntungan menggunakan Kapur untuk tanah masam) .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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Praktikum III Laporan Tetap Praktikum Kesuburan Tanah Jurusan Tanah Nama

:

Tanggal

:

Nim

:

Asisten

:

Jurusan

:

1.

Kelompok

:

2. 3. 4. 5.

A. Judul

: Perhitungan Pupuk dan Cara Pemupukan

B. Tujuan

: Untuk mengetahui cara menghitung kebutuhan pupuk yang akan digunakan dan mengetahui bagaimana cara pemupukan yang benar.

C. Literatur Nitrogen yang terdapat di atmosfir nerupakan hasil senyawa ammonium dan nitrat yang berasal dari bahan padat yangterdapat pada permukaan bumi. Panas yang terjadi pada permukaan bumi menyebabkan nitrogen yang sebagian besar sebagai ammonia menguap ke udara dan bersenyawa dengan oksigen membentuk nitrogen elementer atau gas nitrogen. Meskipun hamper 80% dari atmosfir merupakan gas nitrogen namun hanya diperkirakan sekitar 2 persen dari total nitrogen yang terdapat di bumi. Sebagian besar dari nitrogen yang terdapat di dalam tanah tersebut berasal dari akumulasi yang terjadi melalui proses fiksasi secara biologis.

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1. Pupuk Nitrogen Nitrogen merupakan salah satu unsure hara makro essensial yang sangat penting bagi tanaman dan seringkali ditambahkan ke dalam tanah melalui pemupukan. Tanaman menyerap unsur ini terutama dalam bentuk NO 3-, namun bentuk lain juga dapat diserap adalah NH4+ dan Urea. Peranan utama nitrogen bagi tanaman adalah untuk merangsang pertumbuhan tanaman secara keseluruhan, khususnya batang, cabang dan daun. Nitrogen juga dapat berperan dalam hal pembentukkan hijau daun yang berguna sekali dalam proses fotosintesis. Kekurangan unsur nitrogen mengakibatkan terhambatnya pertumbuhan tanaman, kerdil, daunnya menjadi hijau muda, pada daun yang sudah tua berubah menjadi kuning, selanjutnya pengeringan mulai dari bagian bawah sampai pada bagian atas. Pupuk yang sering digunakan oleh petani adalah Urea. Urea adalah suatu senyawa organik yang terdiri dari unsur karbon, hidrogen, oksigen dan nitrogen dengan rumus CO(NH2)2. Urea merupakan pupuk nitrogen yang paling mudah dipakai. Pupuk urea mengandung 46% nitrogen (N). Karena kandungan N yang tinggi menyebabkan pupuk ini sangat higroskopis. Urea sangat mudah larut dalam air dan bereaksi cepat, juga menguap dalam bentuk amonia. Urea mudah dibuat menjadi pelet atau granul (butiran) dan mudah diangkut dalam bentuk curah maupun dalam kantong dan tidak mengandung bahaya ledakan. Zat ini mudah larut didalam air dan tidak mempunyai residu garam sesudah dipakai untuk tanaman. Kadang-kadang zat ini juga digunakan untuk pemberian makanan daun.

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Para Praktikan diminta untuk mencari Literatur mengenai Unsur Nitrogen dan Pupuk Urea dan tuliskan di lembar kosong di bawah ini. .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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2. Pupuk Fosfor Fosfor biasa disebut sebagai “Kunci dari Kehidupan” karena terlibat langsung hampir pada seluruh proses kehidupan. Ia merupakan penyusun komponen setiap sel kehidupan dan cenderung lebih banyak pada biji dan juga pad titik tumbuh dari tanaman. Suatu sifat yang penting dari unsur ini adalah ia sangat stabil di dalam tanah sehingga kehilangannya akibat pencucian relatif tidak pernah terjadi. Hal ini pula yang menyebabkan kelarutan P dalam tanah sangat rendah yang konsekuensinya ketersediaan P untuk tanah relatif sedikit. Dengan demikian julah ketersediaan P tanah sangat tergantung kepada sifat dan ciri tanah. Karena keadaan yang demikian menyebabkan unsur ini lebih penting dari kalsium, bahkan kadang-kadang lebih penting dari kalium dalam hubungannya dengan kesuburan tanah.

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Fosfor adalah salah satu unsur makro esensial yang sangat diperlukan oleh tanaman. Fosfor dalam tanah dapat digolongkan menjadi dua bentuk, yaitu bentuk organik dan bentuk anorganik. Fosfor terdapat di dalam setiap tanaman walaupun jumlahnya tidak sebanyak N dan K. Unsur ini terutama diserap dalam bentuk ortofosfat primer, H2PO4-. Menyusul kemudian dalam bentuk HPO42-. Menurut Sutedjo (1995), fungsi fosfor adalah : 1) mempercepat pertumbuhan akar, 2) mempercepat dan memperkuat pertumbuhan tanaman muda, 3) mempercepat pembungaan, memasakan buah dan biji dan 4) meningkatkan produksi biji-bijiann. Kekurangan unsur ini akan menimbulkan pengaruh buruk bagi tanaman yang memperlihatkan adanya gejala-gejala seperti daun berwarna kuning kelabu dengan adanya bercak-bercak, pertumbuhan akar jelek, sehingga produksinya pun akan menjadi rendah (Kasinus, 1988). Pupuk SP-36 merupakan pupuk P dalam bentuk super pospat yang mengandung 36% P2O5 yang di dalam tanah tidak segera tersedia dan sebagian terfiksasi. Pupuk ini termasuk pupuk super fosfat (Ca(H2PO4)2). Pupuk ini terbuat dari fosfat alam dan sulfat. Berbentuk butiran dan berwarna abu-abu. Sifatnya agak sulit larut dalam air dan bereaksi lambat sehingga selalu digunakan sebagai pupuk dasar. Reaksi kimianya tergolong netral, tidak higroskopis dan bersifat membakar. Pupuk ini jika diaplikasikan ke dalam tanah dapat menyebabkan tanah menjadi masam. Asam fosfat secara sempurna akan membebaskan ion H+ ke dalam tanah bila pH mulai 3.0 hingga 7.0. Pupuk SP-36 merupakan pupuk pilihan terbaik untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tanaman akan unsur hara P karena keunggulan yang dimilikinya : Kandungan hara P dalam bentuk P2O5 tinggi yaitu sebesar 36%, unsur hara P yang terdapat dalam pupuk SP-36 hampir seluruhnya larut dalam air, bersifat netral sehingga tidak mempengaruhi kemasaman tanah, tidak mudah menghisap air, sehingga dapat disimpan cukup lama dalam kondisi penyimpanan yang baik, dan dapat dicampur dengan Pupuk Urea atau pupuk ZA pada saat penggunaan.

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Para Praktikan diminta untuk mencari Literatur mengenai Unsur Fosfor dan Pupuk SP-36 dan tuliskan di lembar kosong di bawah ini. .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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3. Pupuk Kalium Kalium adalah unsur hara ketiga setelah nitrogen dan fosfor yang diserap tanaman dalam bentuk ion K+. Muatan positif dari kalium akan membantu menetralisir muatan listrik yang disebabkan oleh muatan negatif nitrat, fosfor atau unsur lain, baik di dalam tanah maupun di dalam tanaman. Kalium diserap tanaman dalam jumlah mendekati atau bahkan kadang-kadang melebihi jumlah nitrogen. Umumnya kadar kalium total tanah cukup tinggi, dan diperkirakan mencapai 2,6% dari total berat tanah tetapi yang tersedia yang cukup rendah. Pada keadaan tertentu, misalnya pada pertanian intensif atau pada tanah muda yang banyak mengandung mineral kalium dengan curah hujan tinggi, kalium yang tidak dapat dipertukarkan dapat juga diserap oleh tanaman. Penggunaan pupuk nitrogen dan fosfat berat, turut memperbesar serapan kalium dari tanah. Kalium merupakan unsur hara makro setelah N dan P yang banyak dibutuhkan tanaman untuk pertumbuhannya. Kalium diserap dalam bentuk K+. Peranan unsur K yang utama adalah sebagai katalisator berbagai reaksi, selain itu juga berperan dalam metabolisme karbohidrat, mempercepat pertumbuhan jaringan meristem dan pengatur gerakan stomata (Sutedjo, 1995). Menurut Sarief (1993), gejala kekurangan kalium terlihat pada daun-daun tanaman yang berwarna hijau tua dengan bercak-bercak seperti karat. Tanaman kekurangan kalium juga akan memperlihatkan gejala lemahnya batang tanaman sehingga tanaman mudah rebah, sel tanaman menjadi lemah, daun tanaman menjadi kering, ujung daun berwarna coklat dan adanya nekrosis daun. Kalium klorida (KCl) merupakan salah satu jenis pupuk kalium yang juga termasuk pupuk tunggal. Kalium satu-satunya kation monovalen yang esensial bagi tanaman. Peran utama kalium ialah sebagai aktivator berbagai enzim. Kandungan utama dari endapan tambang kalsium adalah KCl dan sedikit K2SO4. Hal ini disebabkan karena umumnya tercampur dengan bahan lain seperti kotoran, pupuk ini harus dimurnikan terlebih dahulu. Hasil pemurniannya mengandung K2O sampai 60 %. Pupuk Kalium (KCl) berfungsi mengurangi efek negative dari pupuk N, memperkuat batang tanaman, serta meningkatkan pembentukan hijau dan dan dan karbohidrat pada buah dan ketahanan tanaman terhadap penyakit. Kekurangan hara 32

kalium menyebabkan tanaman kerdil, lemah (tidak tegak, proses pengangkutan hara pernafasan dan fotosintesis terganggu yang pada akhirnya mengurangi produksi. Kelebihan kalium dapat menyebabkan daun cepat menua sebagai akibat kadar Magnesium daun dapat menurun. Kadang-kadang menjadi tingkat terendah sehingga aktivitas fotosintesa terganggu.

Para Praktikan diminta untuk mencari Literatur mengenai Unsur Kalium dan tuliskan di lembar kosong di bawah ini. .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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D. Perhitungan-perhitungan Pupuk

1. Pupuk Urea .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ 34

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2. Pupuk SP-36 .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 36

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3. Pupuk KCl .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 38

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Perhitungan Pupuk Berdasarkan Jumlah Populasi Tanaman : .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 40

Latihan Soal : .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 41

E. Latihan .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 42

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Praktikum IV Laporan Tetap Praktikum Kesuburan Tanah Jurusan Tanah Nama

:

Tanggal

:

Nim

:

Asisten

:

Jurusan

:

1.

Kelompok

:

2. 3. 4. 5.

A. Judul

:

1. Budidaya Tanaman Tomat (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) Tomat (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) merupakan tanaman dari keluarga Solanaceae, tanaman ini diketahui asli Amerika Tengah dan Selatan, dari Meksiko sampai Peru. Tomat mempunyai siklus hidup singkat, tanaman ini diketahui dapat tumbuh 1 sampai 3 meter (Tighchelaar, 1986). Tomat merupakan keluarga dekat dari kentang, berasal dari daratan tinggi pantai barat Amerika Selatan. Setelah Spanyol menguasai Amerika Selatan, mereka menyebarkan tanaman tomat ke koloni-koloni mereka di Karibia. Spanyol juga kemudian membawa tomat ke Filipina, yang menjadi titik awal penyebaran ke daerah lainnya di seluruh benua Asia. Spanyol juga yang membawa tomat ke Eropa. Tanaman ini dapat tumbuh dengan mudah di wilayah beriklim Mediterania (Hobson dan Davies, 1971). Tanaman tomat memiliki akar tunggang yang tumbuh baik secara horizontal maupun vertical, batangnya berbentuk silinder dan ditutupi oleh bulu bulu halus, daunnya termasuk daun majemuk yang bercelah menyirip dengan jumlah ganjil, yaitu 5-7 helai. Tanaman tomat dibedakan menjadi dua, yaitu determinate dan indeterminate. Tipe determinate memiliki postur tanaman yang pendek, tandan bunga terletak di setiap ruas batang serta di ujung tanaman. Sedangkan tipe indeterminate, postur tanaman yang tinggi, tandan bunga terletak berseling di antara 2-3 ruas, ujung

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tanaman tomat tumbuh pucuk muda. Tanaman tomat tipe indeterminate menghasilkan buah dengan ukuran yang besar (Jaya, 1997). Warna dari buah tomat bermacam macam dengan kisaran warna dari hijau ketika masak, kuning, jingga, merah, ungu (hitam), serta belang-belang. Berdasarkan ukuran dan bentuk, kelompok tomat granola yang bentuknya bulat dengan pangkal buah mendatar dan mencakup yang biasanya dikenal sebagai tomat buah (karena dapat dimakan langsung), gondol yang biasa dibuat saus dengan bentuk lonjong oval (biasanya yang ditanam di Indonesia adalah kultivar Gondol Hijau dan Gondol Putih, dan keturunan dari kultivar impor Roma) dan termasuk pula tomat buah, sayur adalah tomat dengan buah biasanya padat dan dipakai untuk diolah dalam masakan adalah tomat ceri (tomat ranti) yang berukuran kecil dan tersusun berangkai pada tangkai buah yang panjang (Hobson dan Davies, 1971). Pada Budidaya,tanaman tomat membutuhkan curah hujan antara 100-220 mm/hujan dengan ketinggian tempat berkisar antara 100-1000 mdpl. Intensitas sinar matahari berkisar antara 10-12 jam per hari. Suhu optimal pertumbuhan tanaman tomat berkisar 25-30°C, sedangkan proses pembungaan membutuhkan suhu malam hari 15-20°C. Tanaman tomat sangat membutuhkan air karena 90% kandungan tomat terdiri dari air ( Harjadi dan Sunarjono, 1990). Tanaman tomat dapat melakukan penyerbukan sendiri, bunga tersusun dalam tandan atau rangkaian. Setiap bunga mempunyai 5 buah kelopak berwarna hijau dan 5 mahkota berwarna kuning. Pembuahan terjadi 50-96 jam setelah penyerbukan dan proses pemasakan buah terjadi 42-50 hari setelah anthesis (bunga mekar). Tomat baru bisa dipanen 60-100 hari setelah tanam, tergantung dari varietasnya. Penentuan waktu panen berdasarkan umur tanaman kadang kala tidak efektif. Sebaiknya digunakan pengamatan fisik terhadap tanaman. Tanaman tomat sudah dikatakan siap panen apabila kulit buah berubah dari hijau menjadi kekuningkuningan, bagian tepi daun menguning dan bagian batang mengering. Pemetikan hendaknya dilakukan di pagi atau sore hari karena pada siang hari tanaman masih melakukan fotosintesis. Pada keadaan demikian penguapan sedang tingi-tingginya sehingga buah tomat yang dipetik akan cepat layu. Pemanenan bisa dilakukan setiap 2-3 hari sekali. Di Indonesia produktivitas tanaman tomat secara rata-rata mencapai

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15,84 ton per hektar. Namun untuk varietas tertentu dan didaerah-daerah tertentu bisa mencapai 25-30 ton per hektar (Maharaj et al, 1999).

2. Budidaya Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum annum L) Tanaman cabai (Capsicum annum L) berasal dari dunia tropika dan subtropika Benua Amerika, khususnya Colombia, Amerika Selatan, dan terus menyebar ke Amerika Latin. Bukti budidaya cabai pertama kali ditemukan dalam tapak galian sejarah Peru dan sisaan biji yang telah berumur lebih dari 5000 tahun SM didalam gua di Tehuacan, Meksiko. Penyebaran cabai ke seluruh dunia termasuk negara-negara di Asia, seperti Indonesia dilakukan oleh pedagang Spanyol dan Portugis (Djarwaningsih, 1984). Cabai merupakan tanaman perdu dari famili terong-terongan yang memiliki nama ilmiah Capsicum sp. Cabai berasal dari benua Amerika tepatnya daerah Peru dan menyebar ke negara-negara benua Amerika, Eropa dan Asia termasuk Negara Indonesia. Cabai mengandung kapsaisin, dihidrokapsaisin, vitamin (A, C), damar, zat warna kapsantin, karoten, kapsarubin, zeasantin, kriptosantin, clan lutein. Selain itu, juga mengandung mineral, seperti zat besi, kalium, kalsium, fosfor, dan niasin. Zat aktif kapsaisin berkhasiat sebagai stimulan. Jika seseorang mengonsumsi kapsaisin terlalu banyak akan mengakibatkan rasa terbakar di mulut dan keluarnya air mata. Selain kapsaisin, cabai juga mengandung kapsisidin. Khasiatnya untuk memperlancar sekresi asam lambung dan mencegah infeksi sistem pencernaan. Unsur lain di dalam cabai adalah kapsikol yang dimanfaatkan untuk mengurangi pegal-pegal, sakit gigi, sesak nafas, dan gatal-gatal ( Harpenas, 2010). Menurut klasifikasi dalam tata nama (sistem tumbuhan) tanaman cabai termasuk ke dalam : 1. Divisi : Spermatophyta 2. Sub divisi : Angiospermae 3. Kelas : Dicotyledoneae 6 4. Ordo : Solanales 5. Famili : Solanaceae 6. Genus : Capsicum 7. Spesies : Capsicum annum L

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3. Budidaya Tanaman Tomat Cherry (L. esculentum var cerasiforme) Tomat Cherry adalah suatu jenis tomat yang memiliki ukuran lebih kecil dari jenis tomat biasa yang kita kenal pada umumnya. Tomat Cherry memiliki berbagai ukuran dari yang sebesar buah Cherry sampai dengan yang berukuran sebesar bola golf dengan bentuk bulat atau lonjong. Ada beberapa jenis dari tomat cherry, yang paling ing populer di US dan Inggris adalah “Sweet 100” dan “ Gardener’s Delight”. Terdapat juga tomat cherry berjenis Santorini, yang berasal dari Santorini (Yunani), dan dikenal karena rasa dan bentuknya. Tomat cherry cocok di tanam pada daerah ketinggian 600-1500 m dan bersuhu 17 -28 derajat Celcius biasanya ditanam pada green house dengan sistem Hidroponik (Jendela Alam, 2015) Tomat cherry yang berkualitas baik memiliki ciri – ciri antara lain : memiliki warna yang tetap (tidak belang – belang), memiliki kulit buah yang halus, dan paling tidak berwarna kemerahan. Tomat yang sebagian berwarna hijau akan menjadi matang apabila dibiarkan berada pada suhu kamar pada umumnya. Adapun ciri – ciri tomat cherry yang kurang baik antara lain : terasa terlalu lunak, memiliki kulit buah yang berkerut (keriput) atau rusak. Tomat cherry yang berwarna hijau akan menjadi matang memerah, tapi hindari tomat yang memiliki kulit dengan warna bernoda kotor hijau atau coklat di sekitar warna tetapnya (Wikia, 2015).

4. Ultisol Ultisol merupakan salah satu jenis tanah di Indonesia yang mempunyai sebaran luas, mecapai 45.794.000 ha atau sekitar 25% dari total luas daratan Indonesia (Subagyo et al, 2004). Sebaran terluas terdapat di Kalimantan (21.938.000 ha), diikuti di Sumatera (9.469.000 ha), Maluku dan papua (8.859.000 ha), Sulawesi (4.303.000 ha), Jawa (1.172.000 ha) dan Nusa Tenggara (53.000 ha). Tanah ini dapat juga dijumpai pada berbagai relief, mulai dari datar hingga bergunung. Ultisol mempunyai tingkat perkembangan yang cukup lanjut, dicirikan oleh penampang tanah yang dalam kenaikan fraksi liat seiring dengan kedalaman tanah, reaksi tanah masam dan kejenuhan basah rendah. Pada umumnya tanah ini 47

mempunyai potensi keracunan Al dan miskin kandungan bahan organik. Tanah ini juga miskin kandungna hara terutama P dan kation-kation dapat ditukar seperti Ca, Mg, Na dan K, kadar Al tinggi, kapasitas tukar kation rendah, dan peka terhadap erosi (Sri Adiningsih dan Mulyadi 1993). Di Indonesia, Ultisol umumnya belum tertangani dengan baik. Dalam skala besar, tanah ini telah dimanfaatkan untuk perkebunan kelapa sawit, karet dan hutan tanaman indsutri, tetapi pada skala petani kendala ekonomi merupakan salah satu penyebab tidak terkelolanya tanah ini dengan baik.

5.Tanah lahan Gambut Lahan gambut adalah lahan yang memiliki lapisan tanah kaya bahan organik (C-organik > 18%) dengan ketebalan 50 cm atau lebih. Bahan organik penyusun tanah gambut terbentuk dari sisa-sisa tanaman yang belum melapuk sempurna karena kondisi lingkungan jenuh air dan miskin hara. Oleh karenanya lahan gambut banyak dijumpai di daerah rawa belakang (back swamp) atau daerah cekungan yang drainasenya buruk. Gambut terbentuk dari timbunan sisa-sisa tanaman yang telah mati, baik yang sudah lapuk maupun belum. Timbunan terus bertambah karena proses dekomposisi terhambat oleh kondisi anaerob dan/atau kondisi lingkungan lainnya yang menyebabkan rendahnya tingkat perkembangan biota pengurai. Pembentukan tanah gambut merupakan proses geogenik yaitu pembentukan tanah yang disebabkan oleh proses deposisi dan tranportasi, berbeda dengan proses pembentukan tanah mineral yang pada umumnya merupakan proses pedogenik (Hardjowigeno, 1986). Pembentukan gambut diduga terjadi antara 10.000-5.000 tahun yang lalu (pada periode Holosin) dan gambut di Indonesia terjadi antara 6.800-4.200 tahun yang lalu (Andriesse, 1994). Proses pembentukan gambut dimulai dari adanya danau dangkal yang secara perlahan ditumbuhi oleh tanaman air dan vegetasi lahan basah. Tanaman yang mati dan melapuk secara bertahap membentuk lapisan yang kemudian menjadi lapisan transisi antara lapisan gambut dengan substratum (lapisan di bawahnya) berupa tanah mineral. Tanaman berikutnya tumbuh pada bagian yang lebih tengah dari danau dangkal ini dan secara membentuk lapisan-

48

lapisan gambut sehingga danau tersebut menjadi penuh. Bagian gambut yang tumbuh mengisi danau dangkal tersebut disebut dengan gambut topogen karena proses pembentukannya disebabkan oleh topografi daerah cekungan. Gambut topogen biasanya relatif subur (eutrofik) karena adanya pengaruh tanah mineral. Bahkan pada waktu tertentu, misalnya jika ada banjir besar, terjadi pengkayaan mineral yang menambah kesuburan gambut tersebut. Tanaman tertentu masih dapat tumbuh subur di atas gambut topogen. Hasil pelapukannya membentuk lapisan gambut baru yang lama kelamaan memberntuk kubah (dome) gambut yang permukaannya cembung . Gambut yang tumbuh di atas gambut topogen dikenal dengan gambut ombrogen, yang pembentukannya ditentukan oleh air hujan. Gambut ombrogen lebih rendah kesuburannya dibandingkan dengan gambut topogen karena hampir tidak ada pengkayaan mineral Kadar air tanah gambut berkisar antara 100 – 1.300% dari berat keringnya (Mutalib et al., 1991).

6. Tanah Lahan Lebak Lahan lebak adalah lahan yang pada periode tertentu (minimal satu bulan) tergenang air dan rejim airnya dipengaruhi oleh hujan, baik yang turun setempat maupun di daerah sekitarnya. Berdasarkan tinggi dan lama genangan airnya, lahan rawa lebak dikelompokkan menjadi lebak dangkal, lebak tengahan dan lebak dalam. Lahan lebak dangkal adalah lahan lebak yang tinggi genangan airnya kurang dari 50 cm selama kurang dari 3 bulan. Lahan lebak tengahan adalah lahan lebak yang tinggi genangan airnya 50-100 cm selama 3-6 bulan. Lahan lebak dalam adalah lahan lebak yang tinggi genangan airnya lebih dari 100 cm selama lebih dari 6 bulan (Widyaya Adhi, et al., 2000). Jenis tanah yang umum dijumpai di lahan lebak adalah tanah mineral dan gambut. Tanah mineral bisa berasal dari endapan sungai atau bisa berasal dari endapan marin, sedangkan tanah gambut di lapangan bisa berupa lapisan gambut utuh atau lapisan gambut berselang seling dengan lapisan tanah mineral. Tanah mineral memiliki tekstur liat dengan tingkat kesuburan alami sedang - tinggi dan pH 4 - 5 serta drainase terhambat - sedang. Setiap tahun, lahan lebak umumnya

49

mendapat endapan lumpur dari daerah di atasnya, sehingga walaupun kesuburan tanahnya umumnya tergolong sedang, tetapi keragamannya sangat tinggi antar wilayah atau antar lokasi. Pada umumnya nilai N total sedang-tinggi, Ptersedia rendah-sedang, K-tersedia 10-20 ppm sedang, dan KTK sedang-tinggi. Lahan lebak dengan tanah mineral yang berasal dari endapan sungai cukup baik untuk usaha pertanian. Sedangkan lahan lebak dengan tanah mineral yang berasal dari endapan marin biasanya memiliki lapisan pirit (FeS2) yang berbahaya bagi tanaman karena bisa meracuni tanaman terutama bila letaknya dekat dengan permukaan tanah. Oleh karena itu, reklamasi dan pengelolaan lahan ini harus dilakukan secara cermat dan hati-hati agar tanaman bisa tumbuh dan memberikan hasil yang baik (Alkasuma et al, 2003, Alihamsyah, 2005).

C. Tujuan Tujuan dari praktikum ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian pupuk kimia terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman Tomat,Cabe dan Tomat Chery pada Ultisol, Lebak dan Gambut.

D. Permasalahan Bagaimana mengatasi ketidaksuburan Ultisol, tanah lahan gambut, tanah lahan lebak dengan cara menambahkan pupuk kimia dan dengan pemberian pupuk kimia diharapkan produksi tanaman tomat, cabai dan tomat cherry dapat optimal.

E. Tinjauan Pustaka

1. Ultisol

.............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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2. Tanaman Tomat (

)

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3. Tanaman Cabai (

)

.............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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4. Tanaman Tomat cherry (

)

.............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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5.Pupuk a.

Pupuk Urea

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b. Pupuk SP-36

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c.

Pupuk KCl

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4. Kapur

KALSIT

Kalsit merupakan mineral utama pembentuk batu gamping dengan unsure kimia pembentuknya terdiri dari kalsium (Ca) dan karbonat (CaCO3), mempunyai system Kristal megsogonal dan belahan robohedral, tidak dapat tersubstitusi oleh logam sebagai pengotor yang dalam persentase berat tertentu membentuk mineral lain. Dengan adanya substitusi ini ada perubahan dalam penulisan rumus kimia yaitu café(CO3) substitusi Ca oleh Fe. Sifat fisik dari kalsit adalah bobot isi 2,71, kekerasan 3 (skala most), bentuk prismatic; tabulat, pejal berbutir halus sampai keras, dapat terbentuk sebagai stalaktit, modul tublerus, kararoidal, oolitik atau pisiliyik. Warna kalsit yang tidak murni adalah kuning kecoklatan.

DOLOMIT

Dolomit merupakan pupuk yang berasal dari endapan mineral sekunder yang banyak mengandung unsur Ca dan Mg dengan rumus kimia CaMg(CO3)2 yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan pengapuran tanah masam. Pupuk dolomit di samping menambah Ca dan Mg dalam tanah juga memperbaiki keasaman tanah serta meningkatkan ketersediaan unsur yang lain misalnya Mo dan P. Dolomit berwarna putih keabuabuan atau kebiru-biruan dengan kekerasan lebih lunak dari batugamping, yaitu berkisar antara 3,50 - 4,00, bersifat pejal, berat jenis antara 2,80 2,90, berbutir halus hingga kasar dan mempunyai sifat mudah menyerap air serta mudah dihancurkan. Klasifikasi dolomit dalam perdagangan mineral industri didasarkan atas kandungan unsur magnesium (Mg), kandungan mineral dolomit dan unsur kalsium (Ca). Kandungan unsur magnesium ini menentukan nama dolomit tersebut. Misalnya, batu gamping mengandung 10 % MgCO3 disebut batu gamping dolomitan, sedangkan bila mengandung 19 % MgCO3 disebut dolomit.

62

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63

F. Alat dan Bahan

Alat dan bahan yang digunakan pada praktikum ini adalah : 1.

Cangkul

2.

Spreyer

3.

Ultisol,Tanah lahan gambut, Tanah Lahan lebak

4.

Kapur Dolomit atau Kalsit

5.

Pupuk Urea, SP-36 dan KCl

6.

Benih Tomat, Cabai,Tomat Cherry

G. Perlakuan terhadap Tanaman Tomat,Cabai,Tomat Cherry

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H. Cara Kerja

1. Persiapan .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 2. Persiapan Tanah .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 65

3. Pengapuran .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 4. Penyemaian .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 66

5. Pemberian Pupuk Dasar .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 6. Penanaman .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 67

7. Pengamatan .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 8. Pemanenan .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 68

I. Hasil dan Pembahasan

1. Hasil

Minggu ke-

Perlakuan

Tingggi Tanaman (cm)

Pengamatan Jumlah Daun (lbr)

Produksi Berat Basah (gram) Di Akhir Tanam

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2. Pembahasan

2.1 Hasil Pengamatan .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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2.2 Hasil Panen .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 71

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KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN

1. Kesimpulan

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2. Saran

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Praktikum V Laporan Tetap Praktikum Kesuburan Tanah Jurusan Tanah Nama

:

Tanggal

:

Nim

:

Asisten

:

Jurusan

:

1.

Kelompok

:

2. 3. 4. 5.

A. Judul

: Perhitungan Produksi Tomat,Cabai,Tomat cherry per Hektar

B. Tujuan

:

Untuk mengetahui cara menghitung produksi Tomat,Cabai,Tomat

cherry per polybag yang dikonversikan ke hektar. C. Perhitungan .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

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D. Latihan Soal .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 75

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DAFTAR PUSTAKA Alihamsyah, T. M. Sarwani, A.Jumberi, I. Ar-Riza, I. Noor, dan H. Sutikno 2003. Lahan Rawa Pasang Surut : Pendukung Ketahanan Poangan dan Sumber Pertumbuhan Agribisnis. Balittra. Banjarbaru. 53 halaman. Alihamsyah, T, 2005. Pengembangan Lahan Rawa Lebak untuk Usaha Pertanian. Balittra. Banjarbaru. 53 halaman. Andriesse, J.P. 1994. Constrainsts and opportunities for alternative use options of tropical peat land. In B.Y. Aminuddin (Ed.). Tropical Peat; Proceedings of International Symposium on Tropical Peatland, 6-10 May 1991, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. Bappeda, 2005. Sumsel dalam Angka. Kerjasama Bappeda Sumatera Selatan dengan BPS Provinsi Sumatera Selatan, Palembang. Djarwaningsih, T. 1984. Jenis- jenis Cabai di Indonesia, dalam Penelitian peningkatan Pendayagunaan Sumber Daya Alam, hlm 232-235. Hakim, N., M. Y., Nyakpa, A. M. Lubis, S. G. Nugroho, M. A. Diha, G. B. Hong, H. H. Bailey. 1986. Dasar-Dasar Ilmu Tanah Ultisol. Universitas Lampung, Lampung. Hardjowigeno, Sarwono. 1995. Ilmu Tanah. Akademika Perssindo. Jakarta. Hardjowigeno, S. 1986. Sumber daya fisik wilayah dan tata guna lahan: Histosol. Fakultas Pertanian Institut Pertanian Bogor. Hal. 86-94 Hardjowigeno, S. 2003. Ilmu Tanah Ultisol. Edisi Baru. Akademika Pressindo, Jakarta. Harpenas, Asep & R. Dermawan. 2010. Budidaya Cabai Unggul. Penebar Swadaya. Jakarta. Hobson, G.E, and J.N. Davies. 1971. The Tomato. New York. Acad. Press. Jaya, B. 1997. Botani Tanaman Tomat. Hal 25-41. Lembang, Balitsa. Jendela Alam.2015. http://www.jendela-alam.com/tomat-cherry.html. Maharaj,R.J. Arul, and P. Nadeau. 1999. Effect of photochemical treatment in the preservation of fresh tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Capello) by delaying senescence. Postharvest Biology and Technology 15, 13-23. Mutalib, A.Aa, J.S. Lim, M.H. Wong and L. Koonvai. 1991. Characterization, distribution and utilization of peat in Malaysia. Proc. International Symposium on tropical peatland. 6-10 May 1991, Kuching, Serawak, Malaysia 77

Opena, R.T and D. C. S Tay. 1994. Brassica rapa L. Group Caisin. Hal 153-157 in J.S, Simonsma dan K. Piluek (eds). Plant Recource of South Easth Asia, Vegetables. RROSEA Foundation. Rubatzky, V. E. dan M. Yamaguchi, 1998. Sayuran Dunia 2 Prinsip, Produksi, dan Gizi. ITB, Bandung. Rukmana R, 1999. Jenis-Jenis Ubi Kayu dan Pemanfaatannya. Kanisius. Yogyakarta. Sitorus, D. 1991. Pengarug Sistem Drainase dan Berbagai Perlakuan Jerami Terhadap Kelarutan Besi Serta Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Padi pada Tanah Sulfat Masam. Skripsi Sarjana. Fakultas Pertanian. UNSRI. Palembang. Syukur, Abdul. 2005. Pengaruh Pemberian Bahan Organik Terhadap Sifat-Sifat Tanah dan Pertumbuhan Caism di Tanah Pasir Pantai. Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan, Vol 5 (1). Fakultas Pertanian. Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta. Wikia. 2015.http://healthyrecipes.wikia.com/wiki/Cherry_tomatoes Widjaja Adhi. 2000. Pengelolaan, pemanfaatan, dan pengembangan lahan rawa. Dalam A. Adimihardjo et al (eds.). Sumber Daya Lahan Indoensia dan Pengelolaannya. Puslittanak. Bogor. Hlm. 127-164

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LAMPIRAN

Foto Persiapan Tanah dan Tanaman

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Poto yang menampakkan dengan jelas tanaman dan nama praktikan

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Poto-Poto Tanaman Cabai/Tomat/Tomat Cherry (pertumbuhan dan setelah panen)

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